Formation of metal bearing material

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Metal bearing material such as rock, soil, mineral, sediment and slam may form naturally as well as by human activitities.

Formation in nature

Minerals have formed over millions of years and are today still forming by the interaction of the global forces of tectonism and erosion with the materials which make up the Earth.

Major processes of mineral formation:

Microbes are involved in the transformation of primary to secondary minerals.

Anthropogenic activities affecting formation

  • Mining may expose minerals for weathering which will change the mineral composition.
  • Water treatment and industrial processes may for example lead to formation of authigenic minerals by immobilization processes.
  • Other anthropogenic activities
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