Microbially-mediated mineral transformations

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Microbial cellBioleachingBioprecipitationRedoxMethylation/DealkylationBiotransformationBiosorptionBiocoagulationBioaccumulationVolatilizationDegradation/SynthesisEPSMineralization
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Microorganisms influence the chemical state - speciation and hence the mobility of the metals by numerous and complex mechanisms ranging from direct processes like metal transformation and intracellular uptake, to more indirect processes via production of substances that render the metals more or less mobile.

Microbially-mediated metal transformations

A great number of microbially-mediated metal transformations exist. The mechanism and influence on metal mobility is not clear in all cases. Many terms that are used for classification are overlapping and there is some confusion in terminology. One classification is {Johnson, 2006 #45}:

Other commonly used terms describing microbially-mediated metal transformations are not always consistent with the previous classification. These terms seem often (but not always) to be used to describe biotechnologies like applied microbially-mediated metal transformations within biohydrometallurgy.

The transformations may cause metal mobilization or metal immobilization:

Metal mobilization by microbes Metal immobilization by microbes
Bioleaching
Bioprecipitation
Biosorption
Biocoagulation
Biotransformation Biotransformation
Bioaccumulation
Degradation/Synthesis Degradation/Synthesis

See also

Image:Cell_metal_interactions.jpg which is not quite the same as the picture above ...

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