Natural environment for metal immobilization

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Leaching and precipitation are seldom totally separated from each other. Products from leaching reactions are reagents for precipitation/mineralisation/immobilization reactions as in chalcopyrite leaching followed by precipitation of other minerals.

The idea of using wetland ecosystems to remediate AMD came from observations in the early 1980s that the quality of mine water was significantly improved as it flowed through natural, sphagnum moss-dominated wetlands.

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