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Unwanted material or products left over from a manufacturing process, not profitable enough to treat with available technology.

The term by-product is sometimes used interchangeably with the term waste although the meanings are slightly different. Waste implies that the material is useless. By-product doesn’t exclude the possibility that the material could be reused or even be looked upon as a resource.

Solid by-products from metallurgical processing

  • Finely ground rock materials which remain after milling or concentration of the mineral ore
  • residues remaining after leaching of the mineral ore is complete
  • precipitates generated during treatment of liquid effluent streams
  • slag from smelters

Treatment/handling of by-products

Solid by-products can be

Liquid by-products are usually treated to remove harmful components prior to release into the environment, using technologies such as:

Gaseous by-products usually undergo som treatment prior to release:

See also

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