Impurity removal and concentration of metal-rich solutions

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In practice, leachates always contain impurities or by-products that have to be removed prior to recovery of wanted metals. In some cases the desired metal(s) is the main constituent in solution but in other cases it can be present at lower concentration than the impurities. Therefore different approaches are needed to be taken to achieve the goal of separating wanted metals from impurities. Methods used for the purification and/or concentration of the aqueous solution include chemical precipitation, solvent extraction, ion exchange and cementation.

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