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The oxidation of ammonium ion to nitrite, and the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. The two reactions are carried out by different nitrifying bacteria, such as the ammonia oxidizing Nitrosomonas and nitrite oxidizing Nitrospira, as well as by a few species of fungi and archaea. The process is of great importance for nitrogen removal in wastewater treatment. For studies of nitrogen removal, nitrification pilot plant experiments have proven beneficial.

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